LED ice and snow landscape lighting technology
The ice and snow art landscape originated in Harbin. Due to the use of ice and snow as a performance carrier, it has formed a very unique landscape art culture. At present, it has developed into the world's largest ice and snow art landscape, and has formed a unique tourism culture industry with local characteristics. .
Problems and challenges
Ice and snow art landscape is a combination of ice and snow architecture and lighting art. Ice and snow are carriers, and lighting is the soul of ice and snow landscape. The light of the snow and ice landscape has undergone a history of candlelight, incandescent lamps and fluorescent lamps. Although the ice and snow landscape sculpture and architectural art are becoming more and more perfect, the traditional light source of its application has seriously hindered the improvement of the ice and snow landscape art. The main reasons are as follows:
(1) The traditional light source can't realize the dynamic conversion effect. The static landscape lighting effect that has lasted for nearly 40 years has hindered the improvement of the ice and snow landscape art. The most urgent need is to transform the frozen ice and snow landscape into dynamic, The landscape art of vitality.
(2) The dysentery that cannot be recycled by traditional light sources has brought enormous financial pressure on the construction of ice and snow landscapes. Traditional incandescent and fluorescent lamps are fragile and unrecyclable, requiring repeated inputs every year, and heavy metals in scrapped light sources seriously contaminate the environment. Taking Harbin Ice and Snow World as an example, the number of fluorescent lamps applied in ice and snow landscapes is as high as 400,000 per year. After the landscape is melted, the fluorescent lamps are directly scrapped. The mercury in the lamps has caused serious pollution of 540,000 m3 per year.
(3) Green energy conservation is the development trend and direction of the ice and snow art landscape tourism culture industry. An important cost investment in the world of ice and snow every year is the electricity cost. The traditional light source has low light efficiency, especially in low temperature operation environment. Therefore, the use of green energy-saving lighting source is an effective guarantee for energy saving in ice and snow landscape.
In this context, LED light source has gradually become the development trend of ice and snow landscape lighting with its many advantages. Compared with traditional light sources, LED's advantages such as energy saving, longevity, high reliability, environmental protection, and easy dimming control are outstanding. However, LED lighting belongs to the emerging industry, especially in the application of ice and snow landscape. Therefore, the research and development of LED light source must clearly grasp the unique lighting characteristics and data indicators of LED, in order to finally meet the demand. So let's take a look at what the ice and snow landscape has for LED lights.
Demand characteristics of ice and snow landscape lighting
From the perspective of the landscape design side, the most concerned issue is the light-emitting effect of the LED luminaire in the ice body, the saliency of the brightness and the stunt display effect that the lighting control system can achieve. The designer must pre-evaluate the design by understanding the content and modeling the ice building modeling and lighting effects to determine the overall artistic effect of the solution. This is an indispensable process for establishing an objective evaluation system for the ice and snow landscape design.
From the perspective of landscape construction, there are two main requirements: one is easy to install and the other is high reliability. Convenient installation emphasizes high construction efficiency, no training, fast wiring, only one tool or even freehand; high reliability emphasizes the low failure rate of LED lighting system, ensuring high efficiency, smoothness and no need Change the installation process of the overhaul. The construction period of the ice and snow landscape is only 15 days, and it is constructed in an outdoor environment below -20 Â°C. Therefore, the above two requirements are an important guarantee for the smooth implementation of the project.
From the perspective of the landscape management owner, on the basis of meeting the requirements of the design and construction parties, it is necessary to ensure energy saving, good recyclability and low cost. Energy-saving requirements are better realized, because the LED's own light effect is higher than the fluorescent light of the wrapped color film, and the difference in light efficiency is more prominent under low temperature conditions, coupled with the control factors of dimming and color change, so the energy saving of LED ice and snow landscape lighting The effect is much better than fluorescent lights. But to ensure that the recyclability and low cost requirements require us to invest heavily in research and development.
All in all, the design side's requirements are â€œgood resultsâ€, the construction party's requirements are â€œsimple and fastâ€, and the business owner's requirements are â€œgood quality and low priceâ€. The next step is to discuss how to meet these requirements.
LED ice and snow landscape lighting system design plan needs to consider several issues
1, LED ice and snow landscape lighting fixture selection
LED ice and snow landscape lighting fixtures are divided into two types: light-emitting type and light-transmitting type.
Projection type LED lamps refer to types of lamps that project light onto a landscape faÃ§ade and express the landscape effect through plane reflection. Since the advent of the ice art landscape, designers have sought a lighting solution that only sees ice and does not see the luminaire, which is difficult to achieve during traditional light source applications. The emergence of LEDs provides an effective technical means for the manufacture of "a whole body of illuminated ice." We need to make full use of the unilateral luminescence characteristics of the LED, and embed the LED luminaire into the interior of the ice body so that the normal axis of the illuminator of the luminaire is perpendicular to the viewing direction, so that the observer can not see the illuminating light of the luminaire, and only the reflected light of the illuminating body can be seen. The surface glows. The embedded LED lamps inside the ice body have the best performance on the texture of the ice, so it will become the most widely used type of LED ice and snow landscape lighting. Such luminaires require a large amount of optical radiation power, so high power LED devices are often used as luminaire sources. In addition, some snow sculpture landscapes also require an external light-emitting LED luminaire for faÃ§ade floodlighting.
The other type is a light-transmitting LED lamp whose optical axis direction is parallel to the viewing direction. Most of the light is directly radiated from the ice facade, so whether it is placed in ice or ice, the most sensitive thing is The light source itself reduces the crystallized texture of the ice and snow landscape material. Usually this type of luminaire is applied to the main body line and outer contour decoration of the ice and snow landscape building.
2, light distribution program
The light distribution scheme of LED ice and snow landscape lighting is recommended to adopt the RGB three primary colors. Although the cost of this light distribution scheme is high, there are three positive factors: one is that the color expression of RGB three primary colors is the strongest, and it can form the simulated performance of most colors of visible light; on the other hand, this factor The light distribution scheme can adapt to the design requirements of different landscapes, and ensure the compatibility of recycling and reuse is the best; the last positive factor is to facilitate the standardization of LED ice and snow landscape lighting system.
Compared with the past, traditional light sources belong to the annual investment in ice and snow landscape construction, and LED lamps are fixed assets. Therefore, from the design of LED light distribution scheme, it is necessary to ensure the adaptability and compatibility of LED lighting fixtures to different application design schemes. .
3. Research on the light-emitting effect of LED ice and snow landscape lighting.
The light-emitting effect is an important parameter that determines the overall LED snow and ice landscape lighting effect. The most ideal light-emitting effect is to flood the LED light onto the ice layer to form a multi-faceted light source with a whole body illumination, and the brightness of the surface light source is significant. In order to meet the ornamental requirements of the landscape, there are two aspects to be mastered here.
(1) Light transmission and reflection characteristics of ice
Through experiment, the light intensity of each primary light of LED in 1m thick ice body and 0.3m thick ice body is compared, and the light transmission characteristics of the two are almost the same, that is, the light transmittance of the ice body itself is very good. However, since the ice is a rough type of work, after the ice material is divided into squares, the flatness and transparency of the six end faces are very poor. The split surface between the two ices will seriously block the light, and the light transmittance is extremely poor. In the process of designing the artistic effect of the ice and snow faÃ§ade, it is necessary to fully consider the changes of the light-casting effect in the interior and the splicing of the ice body to guide the design of the artistic effect of the ice and snow faÃ§ade.
(2) The minimum luminous flux of each primary color of LED in the ice body
In order to achieve ice landscape facade luminance light projecting significance, we adopted a method experimental tests and subjective evaluation summarized LED floodlight with each primary light flux lowest limit of ice in vivo, to promote LED ice landscape lighting The application provides valuable guidance data. The application environment conditions are: the length of the ice body is 1 m, the thickness of the ice body in the direction of light projection is 1 m, and the horizontal distance of the optical axis of the lamp from the outer surface of the ice is 0.2 to 0.3 m. The radiant energy of each primary light is:
Red light source flux â‰¥ 150lm;
Green light source flux â‰¥ 300lm;
Blue light source flux â‰¥ 50lm.
This is the most important data to guide the promotion and application of LED ice and snow landscape lighting, and it also has a decisive influence on the system cost of LED ice and snow landscape lighting.
4. Several technical points to ensure stable and reliable operation of LED ice and snow landscape lighting system and better recyclability
LED ice and snow landscape lighting system construction and operation environment is harsh, maintenance is difficult, recyclability requirements are good, which puts high requirements on the reliability of the system. There are two main points to ensure the reliability of the LED ice and snow landscape lighting system.
(1) Improve the degree of protection and impact resistance of each component
LED lamps, cable connectors, drive power supplies, and external controllers should be protected to IP67 or higher, and the impact resistance of these components is critical to ensure that the system is recyclable.
(2) Improve the adaptability of various components in low temperature environment and cold and heat alternating environment
The technical requirements for each major component are as follows:
1) LED light source device package: Generally speaking, silicone potting LED is more reliable, hard epoxy potting LED, blue-green often occurs electrode failure, red often occurs due to cold and heat alternating under the open electrode failure.
2) LED lamps: It is necessary to fully consider whether the sealing process will cause cracking of the lamp housing due to alternating heat and cold. Consider the process of sealing with silicone material and capping with epoxy resin.
3) IC selection: Driver ICs are recommended to use high-speed CMOS chips of common commercial grades. Industrial ICs can be used for control ICs. The selection of passive components is special. The design should be fully considered low temperature -20 Â°C. Deviation from the nominal value of the device.
4) Cable selection: Regardless of the power cable or signal cable, low-temperature rubber insulated wires must be used, and PVC insulated wires cannot be used.
5. Standardization of LED ice and snow landscape lighting system
The standardization of LED ice and snow landscape lighting system will most effectively reduce the cost of landscape lighting input, reduce management costs, reduce engineering costs, and improve work efficiency. In the LED light distribution scheme, it has been mentioned that the starting point for selecting the RGB light distribution scheme is to prepare for future standardization. In other aspects, including the driving part, the control part, and even the external dimensions of the lamp, it is necessary to form a standard, so that more LED companies can provide products according to the standard, and through bidding competition, improve the cost performance of the product, let our ice and snow landscape lighting construction The contractor has the greatest benefit through standardization, which is also an important goal and direction for the future development of LED ice and snow landscape lighting system.
In short, LED ice and snow landscape lighting is a brand new LED lighting application field, and it is also an unprecedented innovation. It is a challenge to the application technology development of LED lighting products, and it will bring a revolution to the artistic effect of ice and snow landscape art. !